CFD for Cement Industry

Cement Production involves calcination of Raw meal generated by Coal or petcoke Combustion in Kiln and Calciner. The Conversion of raw meal to Clinker happens in "Pyro Section". Almost 60% of the Calcination of raw meal is completed in Calciner and the remaining in long, rotating, horizontal Kiln. The raw meal is preheated in a series of Preheated Cyclone before Calcination. The hot clinker is cooled in air coolers, crushed in crushers to fine particle size.

Calcination of raw meal can be expressed as

CaCO3-----------> CaO+ CO2       Endothermic Reaction

The heat required for calcination is supplied by combustion of Primary fuels like Coal, Petcoke, Tyres or Alternative fuels.   Due to high temperature, thermal NOx is produced. Side product of Calcination is Carbon dioxide

It is highly energy intensive process and produces large quantities of gaseous pollutants like Carbon dioxide, Sulphur dioxide and Nitrogen Oxides. Reduction in energy consumption and reducing pollutant formation  is a key Challenge for Cement Industry.

The Key Equipment and Challenges in a Cement Industry are

  • Cyclone:High Pressure Drop, Low Collection Efficiency, Cut Size, Regular Erosion/Corrosion
  • ESP, Bag Filter:Collection Efficiency
  • Separators:Pressure Drop, Separation Efficiency, PSD not as per Design, Higher Air requirements
  • Calciner: High NOx,Lower degree of Calcination, Higher Fuel Consumption, Incomplete Fuel combustion, Use of Alternate Fuels, Optimal Location of Fuel, air, Raw material feeding, lower residence time
  • Kiln: NOx, Hot Spots, Flame Temperature,Shape, Clinker Quality, Pressure Drop, Burner design for Alternate Fuels, CO reduction
  • Chimney:Pollutant Dispersion, Wall Erosion, Condensation
  • Fans: Higher Power Consumption, Fan blade Erosion, Higher Pressure Drop
  • Ducting Network:Higher Pressure Drop, Air Mixing

How CFD can Help

CFD is very commonly used in Cement Industry to reduce thermal, electrical power consumption and pollutants emissions. FluiDimensions has in-depth Cement Process knowledge and strong experience of Application of CFD and process Modeling to improve the performance of Cyclone Separators, improve Combustion, Calcination and pollutant reduction in Calciners, and Kiln.

Our Contribution

  • Re-Design of Cyclone to reduce pressure drop and improve collection efficiency
  • Burner Design for the Cement Kiln for CO, NOx, SOx reduction using Coal, Petcoke,Alternate Fuel
  • Calciner Modeling for identification of optimal location for meal and fuel injection
  • Re-Design of duct layout to reduce pressure drop
  • Developed Software for Automated CFD Cyclone design
  • Developed and Validated Coal Combustion Model to be used for Kiln Burner Design.
  • Applied the Kiln Model for reduction of CO in Cement Kiln for different units
  • Developed and Simulated CFD model for ESP( flow model and particle collection model under the influence of Electric Field. Suggested Modifications to improve efficiency
  • Developed the process model for complete Pyro Section for energy Efficiency Improvement


Cyclone Design

Cyclone Design Modification to increase Collection Efficiency


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CFD helps to analyse Raw meal split and identify optimised feed location and Tertiary air Duct split to Reduce NOx 

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Burner Design for Kilns

Application of CFD to design and optimize primary air percentage to improve flame shape, size and reduce NOx

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